Reviewing Judgment: A Landmark Decision


This case involves a property dispute that reached the Supreme Court after a series of legal battles. Initially, an oral agreement for the sale of property was made between the appellant and Kalipada Das, with a substantial part of the agreed price paid upfront. Various legal suits ensued, including those for specific performance, cancellation of a fraudulently executed sale deed, and declaration of title. The main issue before the Supreme Court was whether the High Court erred in its review of a second appeal decision. This editorial dissects the Supreme Court’s rationale, focusing on the application of provisions from the Code of Civil Procedure concerning the review process. Judiciary aspirants will gain valuable insights into the procedural and substantive dimensions of judicial review through this analysis.


  • Initial Agreement and Payment: The dispute began with an oral agreement on August 19, 1982, between Kalipada Das (respondent No. 1) and the appellant. The appellant paid Rs. 14,000 toward the total consideration of Rs. 46,000 for a portion of the property. On August 23, 1982, an additional Rs. 31,000 was paid, summing up to Rs. 45,000, with only Rs. 1,000 left to be paid.
  • Threat of Dispossession and Legal Actions: As the deadline for the sale deed approached, the appellant learned of Das’s intentions to sell and mortgage parts of the property. To protect his rights, the appellant paid the remaining Rs. 1,000 and demanded the execution of the sale deed. This led to the filing of a Title Suit for possession confirmation and an injunction against Das.

Subsequent Suits and Decisions

Despite an interim order to maintain the status quo, the initial suit was dismissed but later restored. The appellant filed another suit for specific performance, during which Das executed a sale deed in favor of Usha Rani Banik (defendant No. 3). This led to a third suit filed by the appellant to cancel Banik’s sale deed, initially decreed in the appellant’s favor but overturned on appeal. The Second Appeal at the High Court, however, restored the decree in favor of the appellant, citing a procedural error by the respondent under Order II Rule 2 of the CPC.

Review and Supreme Court’s Decision

The core issue involved the High Court’s review of its second appeal order, scrutinized under Section 114 and Order 47 of the CPC. The Supreme Court found the High Court’s review to be erroneous and lacking substantial grounds, thus restoring the judgment and decree passed in the Second Appeal.

Issues Involved

This intricate legal battle centers on the legitimacy and enforcement of an oral agreement for the sale of property and the subsequent legal actions to protect the parties’ interests. The case highlights several legal conundrums, such as the enforceability of oral agreements in property transactions and the implications of procedural non-compliance.

Tracing the Roots: A Dispute Over Property and Promise

The conflict originated with a verbal agreement to sell property, followed by partial payments and legal actions to confirm possession and seek an injunction against Das, setting the stage for a prolonged legal battle.

Legal Labyrinth: Navigating Through Suits and Appeals

The appellant navigated multiple legal suits and appeals, involving the dismissal and restoration of suits and various legal challenges up to the Supreme Court.

Reviewing the Review: Scrutinizing the High Court’s Decision

The Supreme Court’s examination of the High Court’s decision to allow a review petition filed by Das revealed errors, emphasizing the importance of adhering to the proper parameters for a review.

Supreme Clarity: The Apex Court’s Interpretation of Review Parameters

The Supreme Court clarified the parameters for a review under the CPC, stressing that a review should only be granted for significant new matters or errors apparent on the face of the record.

The Final Verdict: Restoring Justice and Order

The Supreme Court’s decision reinforced the judiciary’s role in ensuring justice according to the law, highlighting the importance of procedural adherence in legal proceedings.

Key Takeaways

  • Importance of clear documentation in property transactions.
  • Legal avenues for redress, such as suits, appeals, and reviews.
  • Strict governance of reviews by legal parameters.
  • The critical role of the Supreme Court in upholding judicial integrity.


This case illustrates the complexities of legal disputes and the necessity of a robust understanding of procedural law. For judiciary aspirants, it serves as a vital lesson in the importance of diligence and adherence to legal processes in achieving justice.