Landmark Judgement on Acid Attacks 2023


In a significant move, the Supreme Court of India has directed all States and Union Territories to include acid attack victims on the disability list. This decision recognizes the enduring physical and psychological effects survivors face. The court has also revised the compensation guidelines, advocating for increased financial support for victims. This editorial explores the case details and its implications for legal precedents and societal norms, aiming to provide judiciary aspirants with a clear understanding of the case.

Case Background

Insight into the Supreme Court’s decision

Victim Support

Emphasis on increased compensation and inclusion in the disability list

Legal and Social Ramifications

Understanding the judgement’s impact


  • Assault Incident: Two sisters were victims of an acid attack while sleeping on their rooftop. Four assailants were involved; one prevented the elder sister from screaming while the others restrained her. The younger sister also sustained burns.
  • Immediate Aftermath: The victims were rushed to Patna Medical College and Hospital by their parents. There was a significant delay in receiving medical treatment as the doctors only arrived the next morning.
  • Legal Delays: The police response was delayed, including the apprehension of the attackers and the recording of the victims’ statements under Section 164 CrPC.
  • Supreme Court’s Intervention: The court had to determine compensation, leading to a broader discussion on compensation guidelines for acid attack victims.
  • Compensation Guidelines: The court referenced the Laxmi v. Union of India (2013) case, reiterating the minimum compensation of Rs. 3,00,000 for acid attack victims but noted that states or union territories could exceed this amount.
  • No Compensation Cap: The Court emphasized that there is no imposed cap of Rs. 3 lakhs, allowing states the discretion to offer more substantial amounts as needed.
  • Action Against Unauthorized Acid Supply: The Court stressed the need for strict action against unauthorized acid suppliers and lax oversight by authorities.
  • Purpose of Augmented Compensation: It highlighted that increasing compensation aids victims’ rehabilitation and serves as an incentive for states to comply with guidelines to prevent future attacks.
  • Comprehensive Guidelines: The directives extend to all states and union territories, urging them to include acid attack victims under the disability list to ensure their support and inclusion in society.

Issues Involved

The core of the case lies in determining the extent of compensation for acid attack victims, recognizing their profound suffering and the long-term consequences of such acts. The Supreme Court’s deliberation revolves around whether there should be a financial cap on compensation. This issue is crucial as it involves balancing adequate support for rehabilitation with the state’s capacity to provide such compensation. The discussion highlights the broader implications of setting a precedent for compensating victims of violent crimes in a way that addresses their medical, psychological, and social rehabilitation needs. By exploring this, the Court aims to reinforce the importance of a comprehensive support system for acid attack victims.

Editorial Sections

A Leap Towards Justice: The Plight of Acid Attack Victims

The Supreme Court’s judgment is a significant step toward improving the lives of acid attack victims by recognizing their complex challenges and integrating them into the disability list. This inclusion opens up better support and rehabilitation opportunities, ensuring a more inclusive approach to their welfare and justice.

The Night of Horror: A Case Study of Acid Violence

This case study highlights the brutality of acid attacks and the urgent need for systemic changes in the immediate care and justice provided to victims.

The Legal Framework: Analyzing Compensation in Acid Attack Cases

The Supreme Court’s discussion on compensation illuminates the evolution of the legal framework in addressing acid attack cases, allowing for flexibility in compensation based on the impact on victims.

Beyond the Cap: The Supreme Court’s Stance on Victim Compensation

The Court’s decision to not impose a cap on compensation allows states the discretion to provide higher amounts, facilitating better support for victims.

Strengthening the Fight Against Acid Violence: Guidelines and Government Responsibility

The directives for stricter actions against unauthorized acid suppliers and effective guideline implementation highlight the government’s role in preventing such crimes and aiding victim rehabilitation.


The Supreme Court’s decision to enhance compensation for acid attack victims is a beacon of hope and a significant stride toward acknowledging and addressing the traumas inflicted by such acts. For judiciary aspirants, this case is not just a study of legal precedents but also a lesson in empathy, social justice, and the transformative power of law. This judgment serves as a call to legal practitioners to champion the spirit of the law, ensuring that justice serves as a vehicle for healing and empowerment.